Scottish women’s history

I have returned to studying this academic year part-time and am catching up on modules I had started last academic year but had to take a break from due to having long covid. One of the modules I picked up again was called ‘Arguments and Alternatives’. It looked at different types of history – military history, social history, political history, and so on- and we had three assignments to do. I did the first two assignments quite a long time ago, but this one I handed in last week. It is probably the toughest piece of work I’ve done while studying at the Centre for History and I’ve no idea yet whether it meets the requirements of the assignment. Anyway, I found the topic really fascinating to read up on, so I thought I would share my thoughts out into the world.

It is a truth universally acknowledged that women have always made up about half of Scotland’s population.  Statistics from the most recent census confirm this to be the case; in 2011 women outnumbered men by about 150,000 and outnumbered men in all council areas except Shetland.[1] However until fairly recently, Scottish history was been written mainly by men and was concerned mainly with the actions and interests of men in all-male contexts.[2] This is the same the world over; one of the key recommended readings for this module, Fifty Key Thinkers on History, only contains three female ‘key thinkers’ out of fifty.[3]  In 1978, Eric Hobsbawm agreed:

Women have often pointed out that male historians in the past, including Marxists, have grossly neglected the female half of the human race. The criticism is just; the present writer accepts that it applies to his own work.[4]

Before assessing the contributions made by Scottish women’s historians and ending with a brief discussion of whether this work has created any semblance of equality with Scottish men’s history. Following the example of Michael Bentley’s Modern Historiography: An Introduction which was written chronologically, this essay is written in a semi-chronological order as it is about an entire field of history, not about a specific historical event or period.[5]

To begin, it is useful to start with some definitions of what exactly will be discussed as there are three closely linked, but distinctively different, fields which analyse women’s lives – feminist history, gender history and women’s history.  It should be noted that these three fields often overlap, as will be evidenced later on in this essay, and it could be argued this adds to the richness of what is being analysed and discussed.

Feminist history stems from the concerns of second-wave feminists of the 1970s and originated in less well-funded, under-resourced institutions.[6] It is informed by the theories of feminism, and feminist history is written only by women, but can be about either sex.[7]  When discussing women, it should be labelled as feminist women’s history.  Alison Twells argues that almost any art and humanities subject in the 21st-century university has been profoundly shaped by feminism; it was feminists who first challenged the absence of women in the study of subjects ranging from English literature to psychology, anthropology and history, and they questioned who decided which historical topics, novels and so on were worthy of study.[8]

Gender history developed from the work of feminist historians such as Joan Scott in the late 1980s/early 1990s and uses postmodern analyses of culture and discourse, such as those of French philosophers Jacques Derrida and Michel Foucault.[9]  The term ‘gender’ refers to the social organisation of the relationship between the sexes.[10] It focuses on the social construction of gendered identities and how gendered roles are negotiated.[11]  Gender history seems to be mainly rooted in social scientific methodology, rather than that of the humanities.

Women’s history, on the other hand, focuses on the nature of women’s lives, their role in society and aims to give women a place in history. [12] It takes women as its subject matter and can be written by both women and men. [13] It goes without saying that historians can only study something for which records survive, burgh records, court records, royal accounts, census returns, newspaper accounts and so on, as well as oral history accounts, which in turn influences what they can study and write about. Common themes include domestic life, family, education, work, politics, religion and health.[14]

The development of women’s history is linked to the ‘history from below’ movement and, in particular, the History Workshop movement.  In an article from 1976, Sally Alexander and Anna Davin state that:

Women’s history is not an inevitable extension either of social history or of socialist history. It is well known that women receive little or no attention in traditional history writing, but even among radical and socialist historians they are all too often mentioned as an afterthought if at all, tagged on rather than present in their own right. As recently as 1971, when the suggestion was made at a History Workshop session that people working on women’s issues should meet later in the day, there was a roar of laughter. We know that women’s history still has to be argued for.[15]

The academic study of women’s history in Britain can be traced to the publication of Sheila Rowbotham’s Hidden from History in 1973, however Scottish women’s history developed much later.  In his 1986 book A Century of the Scottish People, 1830-1950, Scottish social historian T C Smout labelled the neglect of women’s history in Scotland as a ‘historiographical disgrace’. [16] Things started to change in 1973 with the publication of Rosalind Marshall’s The Days of Duchess Anne, which was based on her PhD research into Anne, Duchess of Hamilton and then Elspeth King’s work on the Scottish women’s suffrage movement in 1978. [17] It will be shown throughout the rest of this essay that this situation has been remedied (although there is still much work to be done) and that the state of women’s history in Scotland has been vastly improved in the 21st century.

The trailblazer of Scottish women’s history was undoubtedly Leah Leneman, whose fascinating story of how she became a historian whose primary focus was women’s lives in the early modern period (although she studied Scottish suffragettes as well) was published in the Women’s History Review journal shortly after her death. [18] Her first article, which was published in 1983 while she was a postgraduate student, told the story of illegitimacy in two different kirk sessions in 18th century Perthshire.[19]

Illegitimacy and marriage were two themes which Leneman published widely on from the late 1980s, sometimes with (her PhD supervisor) Rosalind Mitchison.  Together they carried out a quantitative study of kirk session records to find out how common illegitimacy was during the period 1660 – 1780 and consulted over 8000 records. [20] It has long been known that marriage laws were different in Scotland to England thanks to the infamy of Gretna Green, but what is fascinating about this article is that it reveals some very surprising practices; for example, it seems it was quite common for three people to share a bed (and occasionally for two of them to have intercourse while the other slept).[21] This quantitative study cleared proved extremely fruitful as Leneman used the data they had collected for a number of articles and books. For example, Leneman’s article on seduction and illegitimate pregnancy surprisingly reveals more about conceptions of social rank than about how women were seduced.[22]  Her article on divorce in Scotland between 1700 & 1830 is fascinating for many reasons, but in particular it demonstrates a clear link between the agricultural and industrial revolution at the end of the 18th century and a sharp rise in the number of divorce cases brought by women (divorce being freely available to both sexes, as long as they had the money to pay the legal fees for it).[23] It is extremely regrettable that much of Leneman’s important work is not accessible today for the student today.[24] However she continues to inspire students today through Women’s History Scotland annual Leah Leneman Essay Prize.[25]

An article written by Elizabeth Ewan entitled A History of Women in Scotland was published by the History Scotland magazine in 2018. [26] In this article Professor Ewan credits the creation of Scottish women’s history as a field to three studies published in the 1980s: Dr. Leneman and Dr. Mitchison’s study on illegitimacy referenced above, Rosalind Marshall’s 1983 Virgins and Viragos: A History of Women in Scotland 1080 – 1980 and Christina Larner’s 1981 Enemies of God: The Witch-Hunt in Scotland as they demonstrated what was possible to achieve through (archival) research into women’s lives. [27] Virgins and Viragos is also not available electronically, however a stinging review of it is. [28] Enemies of God is also not available electronically, but a review in the Journal of Scottish Historical Studies is, where it is praised as: “a most important contribution to our knowledge of one of the darkest aspects of our past, a bold work which seeks to break down artificial inter-disciplinary barriers.” [29] Despite the importance of Dr Larner’s book, it was Stuart Macdonald’s PhD research into Scottish witchcraft which laid the foundations for the University of Edinburgh’s Survey of Scottish Witchcraft (published online in January 2003) and their interactive map (published online in 2019). [30] The survey’s director, Professor Julian Goodare, has gone on to publish several articles on Scottish witchcraft, however these are written from a political or ecclesiastical viewpoint and do not concern women’s lives per se. [31]

Collaboration between historians of Scottish women is obvious and fruitful.  This is evident in both journal articles and books, and in publications such as Gender in Scottish History Since 1700, The Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Women and Scottish Women: a Documentary History, 1780 – 1914 which were all edited by members of Women’s History Scotland. [32]  

In addition to the Scottish witchcraft database, an excellent online database mapping memorials to women in Scotland, which was launched in 2010, was created in collaboration between the Glasgow Women’s Library, Women’s History Scotland and Girlguiding Scotland. At the start of the project there were only 20 known statues to women in Scotland. [33] This almost complete lack of memorials to women led Sara Sheridan to write Where Are the Women? A Guide to an Imagined Scotland. [34] Sheridan mentions in the introduction that there are more memorials to animals than there are to women in Edinburgh; three to animals and two to the same woman (Queen Victoria).[35]  Since its inception the Mapping Memorials to Women in Scotland database has collected information about 600 different memorials to women in the built environment; a clear demonstration of what can be achieved when people work together on Scottish women’s history. [36] 

A surprisingly rich area of study had been that of women’s experience of work.  The focus on work is not surprising; the study of women’s history developed from social history, which developed from the work of communist theorists such as Marx. E P Thompson’s 1963 The Making of the English Working Class can be viewed as being a key turning point in the development of social history.  Thompson discusses labour history in the book, but it is very much from a male perspective, something which Alexander et al state was very much in keeping with his contemporaries:

“As labour historians with a tradition that was also male-dominated, they searched for the hidden voice and presence of workers and militants, but assumed that these would be men.” [37]

By conducting extensive archival work, historians have been able to uncover fascinating details into Scottish women’s work from the medieval period onwards. Women in Scotland c1100 – c1750 contains two fascinating, but short, chapters on female brewers in burghs in the late medieval period and women in the book trade in the early modern period. Eleanor Gordon’s PhD thesis (from 1985) on women and the labour movement in Scotland between 1850 and 1914 is particularly strong on women’s relationship with trades unions and also the Dundee jute industry. [38]  Gordon includes an excellent section on how the census was changed so that working women were under-represented from 1861 onwards, the very precarious nature of women’s employment during the period and how it is frequently of a casual and/or irregular nature, how this temporary/casual/part-time work was often seasonal (not much work in the summer) and working from home was not recorded until 1901. [39]

Deborah Simonton wrote a thorough chapter in Gender in Scottish History since 1700 on women’s experience of work, trade and commerce.[40]  Simonton first discusses the agrarian economy, then discusses changes that happen with urbanisation and commercialisation, and industrial change.  A common theme throughout a large portion of the chapter is women’s textiles-related work. Simonton’s discussion of women working in the ‘needle trades’ in the second half of the 18th century demonstrates how women were able to be entrepreneurial in Scottish towns and cities, and how they were skilled trades which required apprenticeships to be served. [41] However most women did not experience the same level of independence that the milliners and dressmakers enjoyed; this independence contrasts sharply with the gendered division of labour in textile mills and the hiring practices of some mill owners who refused to hire either married women or mothers, or with women who had to turn to outwork when their husbands were employed in heavy industry.[42]  Deborah Simonton’s chapter is authoritative and comprehensive; she covers women’s work over approximately two centuries and a range of female employment, from agricultural labour to business owner, and she discusses textile-related work from spinning, sewing and knitting at home to working in textile factories.

Professor Lynn Abrams is Chair of Modern History at the University of Glasgow, where she teaches and supervises a large number of PhDs, is a former convenor of Women’s History Scotland and she has published widely on (mainly) Scottish history. She considers herself to be a gender historian, is an expert on oral history and in her free time she is an avid knitter.  All of these interests combine in her work, and perhaps her most interesting publication to date is Myth and Materiality in a Woman’s World: Shetland 1800 – 2000. [43]

Shetland is a group of islands in the very north of the British isles, is closer to Oslo than to London, and today is perhaps regarded as a particularly masculine place thanks to the evident Viking heritage.  The book is a case study where Abrams was able to test assumptions held by historians of women about the impact of the Enlightenment and to question whether Shetland women have had agency and power.[44] A fascinating section of the book discusses the Shetland truck system (which was outlawed in 1887) where women bartered for payment in kind from merchants with their knitting; something which Abrams states was an economic necessity as Shetland women had few opportunities to earn and it was an activity which could fit in around other responsibilities, and was a strategy of commerce for a cash-poor society.  One might expect that studying the truck system would expose how these poor women were exploited, however Abrams finds that it gave women some financial independence and that women acted with autonomy as independent producers, which women on the mainland did not experience.[45] In the conclusion of the book, Abrams states that her book is a work of historical anthropology however it comes across as being more than that; there are elements of both gender history and women’s history in her study. Abrams’ work, and this study in particular, is of high importance to Scottish women’s history and should be recognised as thus.

Professor Elizabeth Ewan is a historian of Scottish women in the late medieval and early modern period, and has published widely on gender and crime in medieval and early modern Scotland and on women’s lives in medieval and early modern Scottish towns.  Her work on late medieval alewives and on ‘disorderly damsels’ in Scottish burghs, which is written in a highly readable style, is not only fascinating but also at times amusing.[46]  For example, personal insults between fighting women which were recorded in court documents are included in quotes in Ewan’s Disorderly Damsels article which not only demonstrates how language has evolved over the centuries, but also how human behaviour really has not changed that much, especially when alcohol is involved.[47]  Her work on the late medieval alewives brings to mind parallels with Shetland women working in the truck system as discussed by Abrams and the dressmakers and milliners discussed by Simonton; all of these women shared some independence and had agency.

In 2008 Professor Ewan co-edited Finding the Family in Medieval and Early Modern Scotland with Janay Nugent.[48]  This book is an excellent example of how rich interdisciplinary work can be.  Finding primary sources on the family can be challenging for any period, but especially for the medieval and early modern period, and this required experts from a range of disciplines including gender history, art history, literature, music, anthropology and religious studies.  The first section of the book is on primary sources and is fascinating, however all four articles omit the word ‘Lowland’ when discussing ‘Scotland’ (none of the primary sources discussed are from the Highlands and Islands), something which is remedied by the third section of the book with Alison Cathcart’s chapter on kinship and clan policy in the 16th century Gàidhealtachd. The notion of clanship is very much tied into a contemporary sense of Scottishness, especially in the diaspora, and Ewan & Nugent suggest that this could be a contributing factor into why Scottish historians tend to disregard studying the family as a serious topic of enquiry.[49]

This essay has discussed the work of some prominent historians of Scottish women and has discussed some common themes which are evident in Scottish women’s history.  It is highly regrettable that much of the important work conducted by historians such as Leah Leneman, Deborah Simonton and Elizabeth Ewan is not readily available at present; it has impeded what I have been able to discuss in this essay. It has not been possible to discuss every aspect of Scottish women’s history as it is incredibly broad in its nature, despite having only been studied for about thirty years, and it has not been able to include all Scottish women’s historians and their work. Whether Scottish women’s history is as broad and as all-encompassing as Scottish men’s history, or ever will be, is very difficult to determine as women’s lives and women’s experiences in a male-dominated world will probably always come second.  However, enough has been discussed to confirm that there is a broad, flourishing and vibrant historiography of Scottish women’s history.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abrams, L., Myth and Materiality in a Woman’s World: Shetland 1800 – 2000 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2005)

Abrams, L., Gordon, E., Simonton, D., Yeo, E. J. (Eds) Gender in Scottish History since 1700 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2006)

Alexander, S. and Davin, A. (1976) Feminist History, History Workshop Journal, Volume 1, Issue 1, Spring 1976, pp 4-6

Alexander, S., Davin, A. & Hostettler, E. (1979) ‘Labouring Women: A reply to Eric Hobsbawm’, History Workshop Journal, Volume 8, Issue 1, Autumn 1979, Pages 174 – 182

Barclay, K. & Simonton, D. (Eds.) Women in Eighteenth-Century Scotland: Intimate, Intellectual and Public Lives (London: Routledge, 2013) [Kindle Edition]

Bentley, M.,  Modern Historiography: an Introduction (London: Taylor and Francis, 1999)

Breitenbach, E., Fleming, L., Kehoe, S. K., Orr, L. (Eds.) Scottish Women: A Documentary History, 1780 – 1914 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2013) [Kindle Edition]

Corr, H. (1985) ‘Review: ROSALIND K. MARSHALL: Virgins and Viragos. A History of Women in Scotland from 1080 to 1980 (London, Collins, pp.365. £13.50)’, Scottish Economic & Social History, 1985, vol 5: no. 1, p96

Duffy, J. ‘Why so few statues of great Scotswomen?’ The Herald , 26 May 2013, available online at : https://www.heraldscotland.com/news/13106453.statues-great-scotswomen/ (accessed on 7th December 2021)

Ewan, E. & Meikle, M. M. (Eds.) Women in Scotland c.1100 – c.1750 (East Linton: Tuckwell, 1999)

Elizabeth Ewan, ‘For Whatever Ales Ye’; Women as Consumers and Producers in Late Medieval Scottish Towns in Elizabeth Ewan & Maureen M Meikle, Women in Scotland c1100 – c1750, (East Linton: Tuckwell, 1999), pp125-136

Elizabeth Ewan ‘Disorderly Damsels? Women and Interpersonal Violence in Pre-Reformation Scotland’, The Scottish Historical Review, 2010, 89(228), pages153-171, EUP

Ewan, E. & Nugent, J. (Eds.) Finding the Family in Medieval and Early Modern Scotland (London: Routledge, 2016) [eBook]

Ewan, E., Pipes, R., Rendall, J., Reynolds, S. (Eds.) The New Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Women (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2018)

Ewan, E., ‘A History of Women in Scotland’, 5 February 2018, History Scotland (accessed from https://www.historyscotland.com/history/a-history-of-women-in-scotland/ on 3rd December 2021)

Gordon, E., ‘Women and the labour movement in Scotland, 1850-1914’, Unpublished PhD, University of Glasgow, 1985 (Accessed from http://theses.gla.ac.uk/4883/ on 8th December 2021)

The Herald Newsroom, ‘Where are the statues of Scots women?’, The Herald, 23 January 2016, (accessed from https://www.scotsman.com/whats-on/arts-and-entertainment/where-are-statues-scots-women-1484769 on 7th December 2021)

Hobsbawm, E., ‘Man and Woman in Socialist Iconography’, History Workshop Journal, Volume 6, Issue 1, Autumn 1978, p121-138

Hughes-Warrington, M. Fifty Key Thinkers on History (London: Taylor and Francis, 2015)

Leneman, L.  The Study of Illegitimacy from Kirk Session Records: Two Eighteenth-Century Perthshire Parishes, Local Population Studies, 1983, (accessed from http://www.localpopulationstudies.org.uk/PDF/LPS31/LPS31_1983_29-33.pdf on 30th November 2021)

Leneman, L.,‘ “Disregarding the Matrimonial Vows”: Divorce in Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Century Scotland’, Journal of Social History, Vol. 30, No. 2 (Winter, 1996), pp. 465-482

Leneman, L. & Mitchison, R., ‘Girls in Trouble: The Social and Geographical Setting of Illegitimacy in Early Modern Scotland’, Journal of Social History, Spring 1988, Vol. 21, No. 3

Leneman, L., ‘Seduction in Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth-Century Scotland’, The Scottish Historical Review , April 1999, Vol. 78, No. 205, Part 1, pp. 39-59

Leneman, L., ‘A personal history’, Women’s History Review, 9:3, 2000, pp 453-481

Purvis, J., (Eds.) Women’s History: Britain 1850 – 1945 (London: Routledge, 1995) [Kindle Edition]

Rendall, J. ‘‘Uneven developments’: Women’s History, Feminist History and Gender History in Great Britain’ in Karen Offen (Eds.) Writing Women’s History: International Perspectives (Indiana University Press, 1991)

Scott, J. W., Gender and the Politics of History (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988)

Sheridan, S., Where are the Women? A Guide to an Imagined Scotland (Edinburgh, Historic Environment Scotland, 2019)

Stevenson, D., ‘Review: CHRISTINA LARNER. Enemies of God. The Witch-Hunt in Scotland. (London: Chatto & Windus. 1981. £12.95)’, Scottish Economic & Social History, 1983,vol 3: no. 1, pp111-112

Twells, A.,  British Women’s History (London: I B Tauris, 2007)

Appendix 1: Survey of common themes in cited publications

Publication (not in order)Working classMiddle classEliteRoyal courtFamily/DomesticityPhilanthropyEducationPoliticsSuffrage/protestTrade/commerceWorkWagesReligionEthnicityEmpireIndustrialisationCrime/punishmentWarMusicArt and CultureHealthBirthLove & courtshipMarriageSexualityIllegitimacyDeath/Widowhood
British Women’s History (Twells) xx xx xx xxxxx     x      
Women in Scotland 1100 – 1750 (Ewan)x xxx  x xx x     x    x xx
Gender in Scottish History (Abrams)    x xx xx x      xx      
Scottish Women Doc History (Breitenbach)    x  xx x x x x   x      
Women’s History Britain (Purvis)    x x x x  xxx x xx   x  
Women in 18th c Scotland (Barclay/Simonton)    x xx x      x    xx  x 
Finding family in medieval & early Scotland (Ewan)    x       x     xx   x   
Articles and books by Leah Lenemanxx      x x x        xxxxx 
Myth and materiality (Abrams)x   x    xxx       x   xx  

[1] Data accessed from https://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/census-results/at-a-glance/population on 6 December 2021

[2] Elizabeth Ewan et al (eds.) The New Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Women (Edinburgh University Press: 2018)

[3] Marnie Hughes-Warrington, Fifty Key Thinkers on History (Taylor and Francis, 2015). This book was only published six years ago and was written by a woman.

[4] Eric Hobsbawm (1978) ‘Man and Woman in Socialist Iconography’, History Workshop Journal, Volume 6, Issue 1, Autumn 1978, p121

[5] Michael Bentley, Modern Historiography: an Introduction (Taylor and Francis, 1999)

[6] Jane Rendall, ‘Uneven developments’: Women’s History, Feminist History and Gender History in Great Britain’ in Karen Offen (Eds.) Writing Women’s History: International Perspectives (Indiana University Press, 1991), p47

[7] June Purvis, Women’s History: Britain 1885-1945, (Routledge, 1995) [Kindle edition], location 334

[8] Alison Twells, British Women’s History (I B Tauris, 2007), p3

[9] Alison Twells, British Women’s History, pages 6-7

[10] Joan Scott, Gender and the Politics of History (Columbia University Press, 1999 ) [e book], p29-30

[11] Esther Breitenbach et al. (Eds.), Scottish Women: A documentary history, 1780-1914 (Edinburgh: EUP, 2013) [Kindle Edition] location 202

[12] Esther Breitenbach et al, Scottish women, location 204

[13] June Purvis, Women’s History, location 334

[14] An analysis of themes found in publications on Scottish women’s history are attached in Appendix 1

[15] Sally Alexander and Anna Davin, Feminist History, History Workshop Journal, Volume 1, Issue 1, Spring 1976, page 4

[16] Jane Rendall, Uneven developments, page 53.

[17] Elizabeth Ewan and Maureen M. Meikle ‘Introduction: A Monstrous Regiment of Women?’ In Elizabeth Ewan and Maureen M Meikle (Eds.) Women in Scotland c1100 – c1750 (East Linton: Tuckwell, 1999) p. xx

[18] Leah Leneman, A personal history, Women’s History Review, volume 9: number 3, 2000,  pages 453-481

[19] Leah Leneman (1983) ‘The Study of Illegitimacy from Kirk Session Records: Two Eighteenth-Century Perthshire Parishes’, (accessed from http://www.localpopulationstudies.org.uk/PDF/LPS31/LPS31_1983_29-33.pdf on 30th November 2021)

[20] Leah Leneman & Rosalind Mitchison (1989) ‘Girls in Trouble: The Social and Geographical Setting of Illegitimacy in Early Modern Scotland’, Journal of Social History , Spring, 1988, Vol. 21, No. 3 (Spring, 1988), p483, p485

[21] Leah Leneman and Rosalind Mitchison, Girls in Trouble, p488

[22] Leah Leneman (1999) ‘Seduction in Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth-Century Scotland’, The Scottish Historical Review , April 1999, Vol. 78, No. 205, Part 1 (April 1999), pp. 39-59

[23] Leah Leneman (1996) ‘”Disregarding the Matrimonial Vows”: Divorce in Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Century Scotland’, Journal of Social History, Vol. 30, No. 2 (Winter, 1996), pp. 465-482

[24] Most of her articles are not available electronically, second-hand copies of her books are either unavailable or extremely expensive, and the only library where it is currently possible to view them is at the National Library of Scotland or Glasgow’s Women’s Library due to universities not allowing students at other universities into their libraries due to the pandemic.

[25] Information on the annual essay prize and former winners can be found at http://womenshistoryscotland.org/projects-and-activities/whs-essay-prize/

[26] Elizabeth Ewan, ‘A History of Women in Scotland’, 5 February 2018, accessed from https://www.historyscotland.com/history/a-history-of-women-in-scotland/ on 3rd December 2021

[27] Elizabeth Ewan, A History of Women in Scotland, 5 February 2018

[28]  Helen Corr, ‘Review: ROSALIND K. MARSHALL: Virgins and Viragos. A History of Women in Scotland from 1080 to 1980 (London, Collins, pp.365. £13.50)’, Scottish Economic & Social History, 1985, vol 5, no.1, page 96. 

[29] David Stevenson, ‘Review: CHRISTINA LARNER. Enemies of God. The Witch-Hunt in Scotland. (London: Chatto & Windus. 1981. £12.95)’, Scottish Economic & Social History, 1983, vol 3: no. 1, pages 111-112

[30] The Survey of Scottish Witchcraft is available online here: http://www.shca.ed.ac.uk/Research/witches// and http://witches.is.ed.ac.uk/  (both accessed on 8th December 2021)

[31] Professor Goodare’s bibliography and PhD supervision, which includes several PhDs on witchcraft, can be viewed online at https://www.ed.ac.uk/history-classics-archaeology/about-us/staff-profiles/profile_academic.php?search=6&uun=jgoodare (accessed 8th December 2021)

[32] Elizabeth Ewan et al (eds.), (2018) The New Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Women (Edinburgh: EUP); Lynn Abrams et al (eds.), (2006), Gender in Scottish History since 1700 (Edinburgh, EUP); Esther Breitenbach et al (eds.), (2013) Scottish Women: a Documentary History, 1780-1914 (Edinburgh, EUP). A groundbreaking earlier example is Elizabeth Ewan & Maureen M. Meikle (eds.) (1999) Women in Scotland c.1100-1750 (East Linton, Tuckwell Press). Women’s History Scotland is a network of historians studying gender and/or women’s history in Scotland: http://womenshistoryscotland.org/

[33] Judith Duffy ‘Why so few statues of great Scotswomen?’ The Herald , 26 May 2013, available online at : https://www.heraldscotland.com/news/13106453.statues-great-scotswomen/

[34] Sarah Sheridan, Where are the Women? A guide to an imagined Scotland, (HES, 2019)

[35] Sara Sheridan, Where are the Women?, page 10 and The Herald (23 January 2016) Where are the statues of Scots women?

[36] The Herald Newsroom, ‘Where are the statues of Scots women?’, The Herald, 23 January 2016, available online at https://www.scotsman.com/whats-on/arts-and-entertainment/where-are-statues-scots-women-1484769

[37] Sally Alexander, Anna Davin & Eve Hostettler, ‘Labouring Women: A reply to Eric Hobsbawm’, History Workshop Journal, Volume 8, Issue 1, Autumn 1979, page 174

[38] Eleanor Gordon, ‘Women and the labour movement in Scotland,1850-1914’, Unpublished PhD, University of Glasgow, 1985 (Accessed from http://theses.gla.ac.uk/4883/ on 8th December 2021)

[39] Eleanor Gordon, Women and the labour movement in Scotland, pages 23-24

[40] Deborah Simonton, ‘Work, Trade and Commerce’ in Lynn Abrams et al (Eds.) Gender in Scottish History since 1700 (Edinburgh: EUP, 2006).  Sadly, Gordon and Breitenbach’s important 1990 publication, The World is Ill-Divided: Women’s Work in Scotland in the 19th and 20th Centuries is unavailable electronically. 

[41] Deborah Simonton, Work, Trade and Commerce, pages 210-211

[42] Deborah Simonton, Work, Trade and Commerce, pages 212-216

[43] Lynn Abrams, Myth and Materiality in a Woman’s World: Shetland 1800 – 2000, (Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2005)

[44] Lynn Abrams, Myth and Materiality, p14-15

[45] Lynn Abrams, Myth and Materiality, pages 98-111

[46] Elizabeth Ewan, ‘For Whatever Ales Ye’; Women as Consumers and Producers in Late Medieval Scottish Towns in Elizabeth Ewan & Maureen M Meikle, Women in Scotland c1100 – c1750, pages 125-136 and Elizabeth Ewan Disorderly Damsels? Women and Interpersonal Violence in Pre-Reformation Scotland, The Scottish Historical Review. 89 (228) : pages 153-171

[47] Elizabeth Ewan, Disorderly Damsels

[48] Elizabeth Ewan and Janay Nugent, Finding the Family in Medieval and Early Modern Scotland, (London, Routledge, 2016) [eBook]

[49] Elizabeth Ewan and Janay Nugent, ‘Introduction: Where is the Family in Medieval and Early Modern Scotland?’ in Elizabeth Ewan and Janay Nugent, Finding the Family, page 1

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